In Sanskrit, there are fifteen vowels which consist of five short ones, eight long ones, and two support vowels. Among these fifteen, only thirteen are in normal use these days.
The vowels are called ‘Swaras’स्वराः in Sanskrit.
There are three types of ‘Swaras’
ह्रस्वस्वराः [Short vowels]
These are the vowels from which all other vowels are made. They are five in number and are as given below
दीर्घस्वराः [Long vowels]
They are four in number and are as given below
संयुक्तस्वराः [Compound vowels]
They have been formed by combining short vowels and long vowels.
They are four in number and as given below
Originally, Sanskrit language has 13 vowels. We have included the long vowel ॡ here only for example. The long ॡ is not a part of the Sanskrit letters.
ं - अनुस्वारः ः - विसर्गः
ṃ - anusvāraḥ ḥ - visargaḥ
अ – अजः
इ – इक्षुः
उ – उरगः
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