In Sanskrit, consonants are called व्यञ्जनानि [Vyanjanani]. They are 33 in number.
A consonant is a speech sound or pronunciation that is made with different parts of the mouth, throat, or nasal.
Different parts of the mouth or throat that are used while pronouncing consonants are Gutturals, Palatals, Retro flexes, Dentals or Labials.
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*Gutturals [कण्ठ्य]: pronunciation is made in the throat.
*Palatal [तालव्य]: pronunciation is made with a part of the tongue generally touching the upper part of the mouth.
*Retroflex [मूर्धन्य]: pronunciation is made with the tip of the tongue curled up towards the hard palate of the upper part of the mouth.
*Dental [दंत्य]: pronunciation is made with the tip of the tongue touching the upper part of the front teeth.
*Labial [ओष्ठ्य]: pronunciation is made with the upper and lower lips.
The 33 consonants are as given below
There are two main types of Consonants
1.वर्गीय व्यञ्जनानि[Grouped consonants] also known as स्पर्शव्यंजनानि।
2.अवर्गीय व्यञ्जनानि[Ungrouped consonants]
These consonants are 25 in number
In each of these 5 groups, 2 of the consonants are hard कठोरव्यंजनानि, 2 are soft मृदुव्यंजनानि and 1 is nasal अनुनासिकव्यंजनानि.
These consonants are further divided into 2 types
*अन्तःस्थ-व्यञ्जनानि [य ,र ,ल ,व ]
*ऊष्म-व्यञ्जनानि [श ,ष ,स ,ह ]
च - चक्षुः
ड – डमरुः
स – समुद्रः
ज – जलम्
म – मयूरः
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